杭州概况 Hangzhou Overview
Liangzhu Jade Ornaments
One of birthplaces of Chinese Civilization and ranking among the seven ancient capitals in China, Hangzhou stands out as the "Famous Town of the Southeast". The excavation of the Kuahu Bridge site indicates that as early as 8,000 years ago, the place already saw thriving human activities. The Liangzhu Culture, dating 5000 years back, is hailed by historians as "the dawn of civilization", first set up as a county in the Qin Dynasty (222 BC), it has a past of over 2,200 years. In the 9th Year of Sui Emperor Kaihuang(589 AD), the old Qiantang County was abolished and replaced by Hangzhou (Hang prefecture), marking the first appearance of its current name. Chosen by two dynasties - Wuyue state in the Five Dynasties(907-978 AD) and the Southern Song (1138-1279 AD) as capital city, Hangzhou was marveled by the 13th century Italian traveler Marco Polo who called it "the most graceful and splendid city of the world". The city began as part of Qiantang County. In the first year of the Republic of China (1912), the former Qiantang and Renhe counties were merged into Hangxian County. In the Sixteen Year of ROC (1927), the urban part of Hangxian and its neighboring areas were grouped into Hangzhou City, so began Hangzhou as an urban center. On May 3, 1949, Hangzhou was liberated, and a new era in its history of development began.
West Lake, photographed by Ma Xifeng
The capital city of Zhejiang province and its economic, cultural, science and educational center, Hangzhou is one of the central cities in the Yangtze River Delta. A popular City of Scenic Tourism, it also ranks among the first batch of National Historical and Cultural Towns. Located in the southern wing of the Yangtze River Delta, western tip of the Hangzhou Bay, it is the crossing point of the extension of "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road" and a strategic hub along the "Online Silk Road". Situated at the juncture of 29°11'-30°34'North and 118°20'-120°37' East, Hangzhou features a perfect blending of hill and water, and lake and town, with rich water resources, and a ubiquitous yet harmonious presence of rivers, canals, lakes, sea, creeks. Such picturesque natural view has earned the fame of "Paradise on Earth" for millenniums. Throughout its territory, hilly or mountainous areas account for 65.6% and are largely concentrated in the west, middle and south; Plains amount to 26.4%, mainly found in the northeast; surface area of rivers, lakes and reservoirs takes up 8.0%. Its forest coverage ranks top among the nation's provincial capitals-up to 66.9%. Hangzhou boasts the largest reservoir on China's southern coast the Xin'an River Reservoir (also known as Qiandao Lake) and the world's longest artificial canal-the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal. Traversing the city is Qiantang River, widely known for its spectacular tidal waves.
Hangzhou enjoys a subtropical monsoon climate, featuring distinct seasons, ample sunlight and rainfall, shorter in spring and autumn, and longer in winter and summer. The year 2021 registers an annual average temperature of 18.4℃, 0.5℃ higher than the year before, a total precipitation of 1.721 mm, 51 mm less than the previous year, and a total sunshine of 1,680 hours, 228 hours more than the year last. An extreme high temperature of 38.2℃ - 0.8℃, lower than last year, is recorded on July 15 in Tonglu county, and a lowest temperature of -8.0 ℃ - 0.7 ℃, lower than that of the previous year, occurs in the district of Lin'an, on January 1.
Xin'an River, photographed by Fan Shengli
Under the jurisdiction of the City of Hangzhou are 10 urban districts, namely Shangcheng,Gongshu, Xihu, Binjiang, Xiaoshan,Yuhang, Linping, Qiantang, Fuyang and Lin'an, I county-level city of Jiande, and two counties of Tonglu and Chun'an. There are a total of 191 towns (subdistricts), among which are 23 townships, 75 towns, 93 subdistricts, 1,293 neighborhood committees and 1913 administrative villages. The city covers a total area of 16,850 square kilometers (according to the second land survey), of which the urban area takes up 8,289 square kilometers.
History and Culture
Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains (partial)
Hangzhou is proud of its profound historical culture. For millenniums, the Hangzhou Culture, as represented by the West Lake, Grand Canal, and Qiantang River cultures, has featured a fusion in the opening to the outside world and progress in creation and innovation. Absorbing the cream of cultures of different eras, including those of the Kuahu Bridge, the Liangzhu, the Wuyue, the Southern Song, the Ming and Qing and the ROC, the West Lake Culture integrates the richness of landscaping, gardening, religion, architecture, celebrity, folkways, silk, tea, and gourmet cultures to showcase its characteristic exquisiteness, harmony and elegance; while the Canal Culture features a blending of indigenous cultural elements in water conservation, trade and commerce, local specialty, water-scape, traditional opera and temple fair to reflect Hangzhou Culture's openness, inclusiveness and closeness to life; The Qiantang River Culture, like the surging tide of the river, symbolizes the broad-mindedness and open spirit of the people.
名人荟萃 | Famous Personages
Rower Scroll by Wu Changshuo
Hangzhou has contributed a great number of historical celebrities. Among them are great thinkers Gong Zizhen and Zhang Taiyan; literary giants Bai Juyi, Lin Hejing, Fan Zhongyan, Su Dongpo, Luo Guanzhong, Shi Nai'an, Chen Duansheng, Yu Dafu, FengZikai, and Xia Yan; Dramatists Li Yu and Hong Sheng; Artists Xia Gui, Li Tang, Liu Songnian, Ma Yuan, Li Song, Huang Gongwang, Wu Changshuo, Huang Binhong, Gai Jiaotian, Pan Tianshou, and Lin Fengmian; Classic Chinese scholars Yu Quyuan and Ma Yifu; Scientists Bi Sheng, Shen Kuo. Li Zhizao, Zhu Kezhen.
Mao Yisheng and Qian Xuesen; Educators Lin Qi, Li Shutong and Tao Xingzhi; Medical scientists Zhu Danxi, Wang Mengying and Wu Shangxian and National heroes Yue Fei, Yu Qian, Zhang Cangshui and Ge Yunfei.
名优特产|Brand Local Specialties
Hangzhou's fertile land yields abundant local specialties. The 4,700-year-old silk fabrics unearthed in Liangzhu reveals the city's long history of silk making. The superior quality of the fabric is reflected in one of the verses of Bai Juyi, the great Tang poet, "Red-sleeved girl praised the workmanship of silk, and people seized pear flower blooming season to enjoy wine". Currently, Hangzhou turns out silk products of 200 varieties in 14 categories, including regular silk fabric, satin, brocade, light fabric, crepe, damask, taffeta and so on. Novel in design and splendid in color, they feature elegant flower pattern and vivid human figures, and are exported to more than 100 countries and regions of the world; Hangzhou's "Dongpo pork", a popular dish named after poet-governor Su Dongpo, is extremely tasty. Renowned for its lustrous and ruddy appearance, appetizing aroma and pure taste, the pork dish is "fatty but not greasy, tender but not mashy, and melts on the tongue"; other traditional local products include West Lake Longjing (Dragon Well) tea, Wangxingji fan, Zhangxiaoquan scissors, Zhizhonghe cortex periplocae wine, Lin'an hickory nuts, etc.
Population and Employment
人口总量 | Total Population
By the end of 2021, Hangzhou permanent residents population totals 12.204 million, up 239,000 compared with the previous year-end. The urban population comes to 10.203 million, with an urbanization rate of 83.6%, 0.3% higher than the previous year. The birth rate stands at 7.6‰ and the natural growth rate at 2.9‰. The registered population tops 8.345 million, 207,000 more than the end of last year.
人口结构 | Population Structure
杭州常住人口中，男性为636.0万人，占总人口的52.1%；女性584.4万人，占总人口的47.9%。0-14岁的人口为158.2万人，占总人口的13.0%； 15-59岁的人口为85L1万人，占总人口的69.7%； 60岁及以上的人口为211.1万人，占总人口的17.3%。
Of the permanent resident population, males number 6.36 million, accounting for 52.1% of the total and female 5.844 million, accounting for 47.9%. 1.582 million are in the age group of 0-14, accounting for 13.0% of the total. 8.511 million are aged between 15-59, accounting for 69.7%; 2.111 million are at the age 60 or above, making up 17.3%.
人才就业|Talent and Employment
In 2021, Hangzhou identifies 23,000 high level talents. A total of 483,000 college students under 35 are recruited. For 11 consecutive years, Hangzhou has been rated as among "Ten Most Attractive Chinese Cities for Foreigners". Its net inflows of talents stay atop among China's large and medium-sized cities.
By the end of 2021, Hangzhou provides employment for a total of 7.597 million people. Respectively, the primary, secondary and tertiary industry hire 303,000, 2.655 million and 4.639 million, accounting for 4.0%, 34.9% and 61.1% of the employed total. With 928,000 adding to its general urban employment figure, Hangzhou records a yearend's registered urban unemployment rate of 2.34%.
Inno & Entre Town